Allosteric enzyme – A Brief Overview


Term allosteric was coined by two Nobel laureates – Jacob and Monad to identify the enzyme site which is different from the active site. Allosteric enzymes are those which contain an additional site, the allosteric site in addition to the active site. These are unique areas on the enzymes where an allosteric enzyme may have one or more than one allosteric sites. They non-competitively associate with molecules apart from the substrates and influence the activity of enzymes.

Characteristics of Allosteric enzyme

  • Allosteric sites are binding sites different from an enzyme active site or substrate binding site
  • Allosteric enzymes have one or more allosteric sites
  • Modulator or effector are the molecules which bind to allosteric sites
  • Effectors check the activity of enzymes and can be negative or positive
  • The action of enzymes is enhanced when a positive allosteric effector holds to the allosteric site known as activator site
  • Negative allosteric effector holds to the allosteric site known as inhibitor site. It inhibits the activity of enzymes which is referred to as cooperative binding

Model of Allosteric regulation

There are two main models which have been suggested to describe the mechanistic grounds of enzyme allostery.


  • Sequential model
  • Concerted model


Sequential model –


This model was put forward in 1966 by Koshland Jr. As per this theory, the allosteric enzyme can exist in only 2 conformational changes separately.


Concerted model –


In 1965, the model was put forward by Jacques Monod and his colleagues. As per them, allosteric enzymes may exist in still two conformations, relaxed and active or in an inactive form.

Types of Allosteric regulation

There are two types of allosteric regulation, they are –


  • Heterotropic
  • Homotropic


Homotropic – these allosteric modulators are substrates for their target enzymes and the regulatory molecule of the activity of enzymes. They serve as activators to enzymes.


Heterotropic – these allosteric modulators are regulatory molecules that are not also the substrate of the enzyme. This can be either inhibitor or activator of the enzyme


This was a brief on allosteric enzymes. Another interesting topic which could be studied is cretinism.


Cretinism or congenital hypothyroidism, seen in newborns, is a severe deficiency of the thyroid hormone. It leads to impaired neurological functioning, physical deformations and stunted growth. This may be as a result of a difficulty with the thyroid gland of the baby. In some other cases, it can be inadequate iodine content in the mother’s diet during her pregnancy.


Some symptoms of cretinism are – stunted growth, lack of weight gain, lethargy, excessive sleep, hoarse voice, constipation, abnormal growth of bones, unusually large tongue, low muscle tone, pale skin, myxedema, goitre, umbilical hernia to name a few.


In newborns, this condition could be due to a poorly formed or missing or unusually small thyroid gland, genetic defect affecting the production of thyroid hormone, radioactive iodine for thyroid cancer during pregnancy, use of medicines disrupting thyroid hormone production and so on.


This was a brief on cretinism. Alternatively you can subscribe to BYJU’S YouTube Channel for related content.






How might you change your photograph in Aadhar card online in your language Hindi?



An Aadhaar card is a help character proof that contains your biometric data and section information. It is a critical affirmation for every individual in the country and is given by the Government of India. Regardless, there could be the place where you may require an Aadhaar card photo change, and there are two distinct methods of doing it. You can do it by refreshing information through the Self-Administration Update Portal, or you can visit the enrollment place near you. In case you have to know how to change photo in aadhar card online in Hindi, you can do the accompanying systems. There is simply one stage to change the photo in your Aadhaar card on the web.


Along these lines, the solution to your question how to change photograph in aadhar card online in Hindi is underneath portrayed –


To refresh the photo on your Aadhaar card, you essentially need to visit the nearest Aadhaar enlistment center. Follow the methods referred to underneath to refresh the photo and the most fitting solution to your inquiry “how to change photograph in aadhar card in Hindi?”


  • Visit an Aadhaar enlistment site.


  • Download the enlistment structure from the position UIDAI website.


  • Cautiously top off the structure.


  • Presently present the structure to the workplace and give your biometric subtleties.


  • The official present at the middle will snap your image.


  • You will be needed to give the biometrics to affirm your subtleties.


  • You will at present get a certification slip that passes on your URN.


If you can’t present the structure vis-à-vis, you can get your Aadhaar refreshed by staying in contact with the UIDAI neighborhood office.


  • Download the Aadhaar data update slips from the official webpage of UIDAI.


  • Then simply fill in all the essential subtleties.


Aadhaar card is one of the main government character confirmations as it contains the two portions similarly as the biometric data of the cardholder. Regardless, there may be conditions where an individual may be needed to refresh his subtleties in Aadhaar. There are two unique approaches to refresh Aadhaar, one through the Self-Service Update Portal (SSUP) and the other by visiting the Aadhaar Registration Center.


An individual can get his subtleties in Aadhaar refreshed by visiting a nearby by Aadhaar Registration Center. You can follow the methods referred to above to change the photo in the Aadhar card.


Get Best Counselling Services From The Study Abroad Consultants



Every year, a large number of students are going abroad for pursuing higher education in the foreign universities. Some students go abroad to widen their horizons and to be a master in problem-solving skills. Whereas, some other students go abroad for getting updated knowledge on technology and new concepts. No matter what your reason for studying overseas is, there is a need to have consultancy with the study abroad consultant who will guide you in your career counseling. Do you want to study a PhD in a foreign university? Before you make your mind to go overseas for fulfilling your career goals, you should seek consultations from the professional study abroad consultants in Delhi. Getting admission in a foreign college is not an easy task. You need to have a lot of information before you take steps for going overseas. Get in touch with a study overseas consultant who will be able to guide you properly in your PhD admission counseling. Along with career counseling services, the consultants will help you in visa counseling, admission counseling services and many more. If you do not understand which university you should take admission, then the consultant will help you in this matter. The consultant will suggest a suitable university for an appropriate course which you desire to pursue.


Why Opt For Study Abroad Consultants?


There are advantages in using the services of study abroad consultants. What are they?


* At times, you get confused as you do not understand which field of study you should choose. A study overseas consultant will give you the best suggestion in your career counseling.


* If you feel difficulty in deciding which foreign university will be right for you, then the study abroad consultant will recommend a university to you which will be apt for your course.


* Get the best admission guidance from the study abroad consultant who will also give you information on the fee structure and the expense of accommodation in a foreign country. Your study overseas consultant will supervise you in the admission procedure which will help you get admission in your desired foreign college with ease.


Get Excellent admission counseling support


Get connected to the eminent test preparations and admission counseling center which will provide you a top level of guidance and support in admissions counselling services. Students who have approached the admission counseling center have got admissions in their desired colleges in foreign countries. The aim of the admission counseling center is to provide proper counseling services by way of interview training, profile assessments, visa counseling and so on.


Services And Packages To Avail


The study abroad consultants in Delhi render various consultancy services. The consultant will help you prepare application documents, assess the profiles of students, shortlist universities, execute financial planning, prepare students for interviews and execute pre-departure orientation services. The packages you can book are Indian B-schools admission counseling, comprehensive package, interview training services and visa counseling services. You can expect a high standard of consultancy services in MBA admission, undergraduate admission and MS/ PhD admissions.



Pay affordable fees for your desired counseling services from the proficient study overseas consultant.